Coma was defined as unarousable unresponsiveness. The terms ��confusion�� and ��stupor��, which are described more extensively elsewhere, referred to states between alertness Veliparib price and coma [14]. Glasgow coma scales of the patients could not be provided. Steroids were used in all cases with mental status changes (dexamethasone or prednisolone; for 2�C11?days, median 4?days). The statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS?12.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) program. Results were given as mean?��?standard deviation, median (minimum�Cmaximum) for continuous variables and frequencies, and percentages for categorical variables. The comparisons between the two groups were analysed with independent-samples t-tests or Mann�CWhitney U-tests, as appropriate. The comparisons in more than two groups were performed with one-weay ANOVA or Kruskal�CWallis variance analysis, as appropriate. Spearman or Pearson correlation analyses were used to determine the linear association. Chi-square tests or Fisher��s exact tests were used for the comparisons of categorical variables. Survival analysis was performed with log-rank tests and Cox proportional regression analysis. All of the variables that appeared to be related to mortality were included in univariate analysis. Although some of the variables did not Temozolomide cost have a significant p-value, we included clinically important variables in a multivariate analysis. A p-value of <0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. For statistical comparisons, the bacterial isolates were grouped as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, enteric Gram-negative bacteria, coagulase-negative staphylococci, other Streptococcus species, Neisseria meningitidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Laboratory data on the patients are shown in Table?1. CSF culture positivity was 92.5%. The rate of positive blood culture in the case of negative CSF culture was 7.5%. In 23.9% of the cases, the same pathogen was detected in both CSF and blood cultures. In nine patients (5.7%), the CSF white blood cell (WBC) count was found to be lower than 100/mm3. In one case, CSF pleocytosis was not detected, but S.?pneumoniae was isolated from the CSF culture, and the patient died on the day of hospital admission. CSF glucose <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DDR1">DDR1 levels were significantly higher among diabetic patients than among non-diabetic patients (p?=?0.008). Accordingly, CSF/blood glucose ratios were significantly lower in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients (p?=?0.032). CSF WBC counts and CSF/blood glucose ratios were significantly lower for fatal cases than for survivors (p?=?0.005 and p?=?0.013, respectively). The CSF WBC counts of the patients with immunosuppressive disorders were significantly lower than those of immunocompetent patients (1561.6, standard deviation (SD)?1905.8; 4529.6, SD?6963.6; p?0.008).