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  • henselae in cervical lymphadenitis (CL) and Kawasaki disease (KD), which are relatively common diseases in children. Here, we serologically evaluated the prevalence of Bartonella henselae infection in children with CL, KD, and infectious diseases without cervical lymphadenopathy (ID) in the Inba area, which includes both rural and urban regions (semi-rural areas), near Tokyo, Japan. Children with CL and fever (n= 61; age range, 8 months to 11.8 years) were subjected to examination for immunoglobulin (Ig) G- and IgM-class antibodies against B. henselae. A commercially available B. henselae-based indirect immunofluorescence test (Speciality Laboratories, Valencia, CA) was used to assess the http://www.selleckchem.com/products/jq1.html presence of IgG-class antibodies against B. henselae in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Serum was considered to be positive for B. henselae when the IgG titer was ��1?:?64 or the IgM titer was ��1?:?20.5,8,9 CL was defined as obvious inflammation of cervical lymph nodes and fever that did not meet the criteria for KD, and included infectious mononucleosis and streptococcal infections. KD was R428 in vivo defined based on reported criteria (fever persisting 5 days or more, bilateral conjunctival congestion, changes in lips and oral cavity, polymorphous exanthema, changes in peripheral extremities, and acute nonpurulent cervical lymphadenopathy).10 ID included pneumonia and urinary tract infections. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student's t-test and ��2-test, and P < 0.05 was considered to indicate significance. Positivity for B. henselae IgG was significantly higher in children with CL when compared to children with ID or KD (P < 0.05, Tables?1,2). There were no IgM-positive cases in this series (data not shown). The positive ratio in CL patients that owned cats or dogs was also significantly higher when compared with the ID and KD groups. Positivity for B. henselae IgG had a higher ratio of cat or dog owners, but this was not statistically significant (P= 0.1). The average age of children E-64 with CL was lower than that of children with ID, but the difference was not significant (P= 0.09). On the other hand, the average age of children with KD was significantly lower than the average age of the children with CL and ID (P < 0.05). In this study, the positivity rate for IgG against B. henselae in children was 44.3%, which was between the rates seen in Greek children (22.3%)11 and Italian children (61.6%),4 but was significantly higher than that in healthy adolescents and adults (3.6�C6.4%).4,9,12 The reason for the higher positivity rate in children than in adolescent and adult populations remains uncertain, but several explanations have been proposed, including the large number of kittens living in private houses with young children4 and false-positive reactions to mycoplasma pneumoniae or viral cross-reactivity.

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