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div>9�C17 years). Symptomatic re-obstruction of the frontal sinus requiring revision surgery occurred in 61 (29.9%) patients. Drillouts performed for a diagnosis of mucocele or tumor had significantly higher failure rate (38.9%, odds ratio [OR]?=?2.9, P?=?0.022 and 58.3%, OR?=?5.3, P?=?0.020, respectively). The majority of surgical failures (61%) occurred within 2 years of surgery, but delayed failures were observed up to 12 years after drillout. Clinical outcome did not correlate with a history of smoking, asthma, nasal allergy, aspirin sensitivity, prior sinus surgery, nasal polyposis, or the presence of eosinophilic mucin. For the majority of patients who undergo frontal sinus drillout, patency of the frontal sinus outflow tract appears to be maintained for more than a decade; nevertheless, almost one-third of patients MAPK Inhibitor Library manufacturer who undergo this procedure will ultimately require additional frontal sinus surgery. 4. Laryngoscope, 124:1066�C1070, 2014 ""The depth of the frontal sinus was measured using axial Alkannin computed tomography (CT) images to examine the safety of frontal sinus trephination at selected distances from the midline. Review of 200 sinus CT scans. Two hundred sinus CT scans (400 frontal sinuses) were reviewed to measure the frontal sinus depth at 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm from midline. Males had a significantly deeper frontal sinus than females at all measurements points (P < .001). The measurements revealed a considerable number of small but nonhypoplastic frontal sinuses, which were shallower than the length of standard frontal trephine instruments (7 mm) and would risk penetration of the posterior table of the sinus. Of all frontal sinuses studied, 9.54% Metformin mw were <7 mm deep at 5 mm from the midline, 10.12% at 10 mm, and 8.96% at 15 mm from the midline. Overall, 15.3% of all frontal sinuses studied had at least one point where the measured depth was <7 mm. Although the majority of patients have frontal sinuses deep enough to accommodate standard trephine instruments, surgeons should recognize that up to 15% of nonhypoplastic frontal sinuses may not be sufficiently deep at a given point to allow safe trephination without risking unintentional transgression of the posterior table. This study suggests that trephination routinely carried out at a given predetermined distance from the midline may be an unsafe practice. Careful evaluation of the imaging is essential in every case to avoid inadvertent injury and to help select the safest distance from the midline for frontal sinus trephination. Laryngoscope, 2010 ""This study assessed the effects of varying the electrode location on tonal discrimination and speech perception in Mandarin Chinese-speaking patients. A controlled study with six experimental conditions. Seven Mandarin-speaking listeners who received a MED-EL cochlear implant (CI), ranging in age from 12.88 to 36.43 years (mean, 25.51 years), with an average of 5.28 years of device experience, participated this study.</div>