Among patients prescribed opioids or combinations of opioid and acetaminophen, only seven received separate prescriptions or recommendations for acetaminophen. Nonopioid analgesics taken by patients included acetaminophen (n?=?15) and ibuprofen (n?=?18). Among the 104 patients in the study sample, 16% were diagnosed with fractures. The most common locations for pain were the lower extremity (34%), check details
back (19%), and upper extremity (19%). In comparison to patients taking only nonopioids, those initiating treatment with any opioid-containing analgesics were younger (p?=?0.003), had less formal education (p?<?0.001), and less often reported experiencing injuries (p?=?0.03; Table?1). Propensity score matching identified 50 patients taking opioid-containing analgesics and 25 patients taking nonopioid analgesics and improved covariate balance. Among matched patients, only the proportion of patients in each group completing college remained significantly different (p?=?0.03). The mean?��?SD number of?days elapsed between the ED visit and the interview was similar in patients taking opioid and nonopioid analgesics for the entire sample (5.1?��?1.0 vs. 5.4?��?1.2) and for propensity score�Cmatched patients (5.1?��?0.8 vs. 5.5?��?1.2). Among all patients initiating treatment with opioids, commonly reported side effects of moderate or severe intensity were reported at the following frequencies: tiredness 30%, nausea <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/wnt-c59-c59.html
">C59 20%, constipation 20%, dizziness 17%, unsteadiness 13%, and vomiting 13% (Table?2). Aldosterone
For those taking nonopioids, moderate or severe intensities of these side effects were only reported for nausea (6%) and vomiting (6%). Among patients initiating treatment with opioid-containing analgesics, 62% (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?50% to 72%) reported a score of 4 or more (i.e., moderate or severe symptoms) for one or more of the six side effects. For the entire sample and for matched patients, side effects of moderate or severe intensity were more common among patients taking opioids than were side effects among patients only taking nonopioids (Table?3). Among propensity score�Cmatched patients, medication discontinuation occurred more often in patients taking opioid-containing analgesics than in those taking only nonopioids. Mean decreases in pain scores from the ED visit to the follow-up phone call were similar for patients taking any opioids versus those taking only nonopioid analgesics. Among the entire sample (n?=?104), 46 (44%) reported pain scores of 4 or more during phone call follow-up, and two patients taking opioid-containing analgesics and one patient taking a nonopioid revisited the ED during the first week. The mean (��SD) pain score during the follow-up phone calls for the 12 patients who discontinued their analgesic medications due to side effects was 6.3 (��3.