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div>?4d�Cf). We also found that juvenile mussel density decreased as a function of sedimentation for all three size classes of inorganic material and for the smallest size class of organic sediments, but not for the other size classes of organic sediments (Fig.?5). Mean trout density did not differ significantly between streams with and

without recent recruitment for 0+ [2005: 20��4?��?10��5 vs. 21��9?��?11��0 ind. (individuals) 100?m?2; 1995�C2005: 13��9?��?6��0 vs. 25��6?��?10��9 ind. 100?m?2] or >0+ trout (2005: 6��2?��?1��4 vs. 4��6?��?1��3 ind. 100?m?2; 1995�C2005: 8��2?��?1��4 vs. 9��1?��?2��2) (Wilcoxon two-sample tests, P?>?0��05, n2005?=?22, n1995�C2005?=?24). There was no relationship between trout density (mean density for 1995�C2005 and 2005 for 0+ and older trout) and age of the youngest mussel, or between trout density and juvenile mussel density (regressions, P?>?0��05). Belinostat ic50 Analysis of 0+

trout density (2005) in relation to recruitment and turbidity revealed an effect of turbidity (ancova, F1,18?=?13��9, P?=?0��002, n?=?22) but not of recruitment (ancova, F1,18?=?0��49, P?=?0��49, n?=?22) or the interaction between turbidity and recruitment (ancova, F1,18?=?1��0, P?=?0��32, n?=?22). As the interaction between turbidity and recruitment in this ancova was not significant, a subsequent ancova, not analysing this interaction, should be carried out. This second ancova revealed an effect of recruitment (ancova, F1,19?=?0��12��9, P?=?0��002, n?=?22) and turbidity

(ancova, F1,19?=?23��8, P?=?0��0001, n?=?22) on 0+ trout density (Fig.?6). Analysis of older trout (2005) revealed no effects of recruitment (ancova, F1,19?=?2��4, P?=?0��14, n?=?22) or turbidity (ancova, F1,19?=?0��97, P?=?0��34, n?=?22) on density of older trout (>0+). There was no relationship between trout density (0+ and older trout) in 2005 and the different sediment size classes (P?>?0��05, n?=?17). The CDA showed that the streams with and without recent recruitment could be significantly separated from each other (Eigenvalue?=?6��0, Wilks?=?0��14, ��2?=?24��4, P?=?0��004). The streams with recent recruitment were associated with lower levels of turbidity and sedimentation than the streams without recent recruitment. Turbidity was the factor with the highest loading, whereas trout density and the two largest organic size classes had the lowest loadings (Fig.?7). Many of the populations studied had a low proportion of juvenile mussels, as reported from other European countries (Cosgrove et?al. 2000; Hastie et?al. 2000; Morales et?al. 2004). The lower than expected proportion of mussels ��10?years of age may be an artefact of sampling as individuals of this age class are easily missed due to their small size (Hastie & Cosgrove 2002). However, the five streams that lacked mussels <10?years of age also had low densities of mussels 11�C20?years of age, indicating that recruitment was truly impaired in these streams.

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