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  • 5%), non-suppurative sequelae (n?=?13; 1.3%) and other types of infections (n?=?24; 2.4%). tuclazepam The size of the predicted mature form of M protein was highly heterogeneous, ranging from 229 to 509 residues. Importantly, M protein length was highly correlated with emm pattern. M proteins of pattern A�CC were the longest (average 443 residues; 95% CI, 427�C463), followed by pattern D (average 360 residues; 95% CI, 353�C368), while those of pattern E were the shortest (average 316 residues; 95% CI, 312�C320) (Student's t-test; for two-way comparisons among all pattern groups, t?<0.001). emm sequence data, including detailed annotation of sequence repeats, for one representative of each of 175 emm-types are available in GenBank (accession numbers JX028599-JX028772, JX472406). The ��A�� repeats are defined as amino acid sequence repeats beginning within the first 50 amino-terminal residues of the mature protein (i.e. emm typing region). Similarly, ��B�� repeats are defined as sequence repeats starting between residue 51 and the beginning of the CRR. The ��C�� repeats are defined by their homology with a highly conserved 35-residue block (Data S2). Data show that a majority (65%) of M proteins do not possess ��A�� repeat sequences. However, ��A�� repeats are more <a href="">this website frequent amongst the pattern A�CC group, where ~50% of M proteins have ��A�� repeats, than amongst the D and E groups (33 and 30% respectively). The presence of ��B�� repeats also correlates with the emm pattern groupings: 57, 51 and 15% of M proteins click here of patterns A�CC, D and E, respectively, possess ��B�� repeats. When present, 85% of the ��B�� repeats consist of only two repeat units in tandem (size range, 7�C62 residues); higher numbers of ��B�� repeat units were almost exclusively associated with M proteins of the A�CC group. Both ��A�� and ��B�� repeat sequences originating from different emm-types were rarely found to share extensive sequence homology. On the contrary, all M proteins possess a CRR. The number of ��C�� repeat units ranges from one to five, with the vast majority of M-types (90%) harboring three repeat units. Based on the data obtained in this study, and on information from published literature [4, 9, 10, 13], we propose a new structural model with three representative M proteins (Fig.?2). M5, M80 and M77 proteins were selected as prototypes for the structural characteristics within each emm pattern group. This model provides the advantage of being far more representative of M proteins from organisms recovered worldwide. In order to examine sequence heterogeneity from isolates of the same emm-type originating from different geographical regions, we identified all emm-types recovered from at least five locations. Eighty emm-types encompassing 900 isolates fulfilled this criterion (Table S3). Sixty-five (81%) emm-types showed intra-emm-type differences in the size of M-proteins (Table S3). Within each emm-type, an average mean of 69% of isolates belonged to the most common size variant.

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