The Nice, The Negative As well as Nivolumab
  • Changes in CAT score between two study visits were associated with low-modest prediction of exacerbations in the subsequent study periods. Changes in CAT score at week 8 from baseline showed relatively low predictive value for exacerbations in the subsequent eight weeks (AUC 0.54; 95% CI 0.48�C0.59) or 16 weeks (AUC 0.55; 95% CI 0.50�C0.61). Changes in CAT score at week 16 from week 8 showed modest prediction (AUC 0.61; 95% CI 0.56�C0.66) for exacerbations in the subsequent eight weeks. The results of multivariate analyses evaluating the relationship between Nivolumab supplier the CAT score and time to first exacerbation or risk of exacerbations are summarised in Table 4. In unadjusted analysis, the categorised CAT score was significantly associated with time to first exacerbation, and the risk of having any COPD exacerbation or moderate-severe exacerbation (p?<?0.001 for all). These relationships remained significant even after adjusting for the effect of potential confounders (p?=?0.001 or p?<?0.001). Similarly, the uncategorised CAT score was also predictive of all three outcomes in both unadjusted (p?<?0.001 for all) and adjusted analyses (p?<?0.001, p?=?0.001; p?=?0.002 respectively) ( Table 4). The relationship between each CAT score category and each outcome was evaluated. Higher CAT score categories were associated with significantly shorter time to first exacerbation, compared with the lowest category (Table 4). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios (HR) was 1.00, 1.73, 2.41, <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/atezolizumab.html">selleck antibody and 4.16 respectively (Table 4) and the adjusted median time was >24, 14, 9, and 5 weeks respectively (Fig.?1) for the four categories in ascending order. Similarly, higher CAT score categories were associated with significantly higher exacerbation risk; adjusted relative risks (RRs) 1.00, 1.30, 1.37, and 1.50 respectively (Table 4). Patients in the highest category were at twice the risk of having moderate-severe exacerbations (adjusted RR 2.01; p?<?0.001) than patients in the lowest category ( Table 4). Exacerbation history (��2 vs. 1 event in the past year) was significantly associated with time to first exacerbation (p?=?0.023) and risk of any exacerbation (p?=?0.016) ( Table 4). Compared with patients with less frequent prior exacerbations (1 event), those with frequent prior exacerbations (��2 events) showed a shorter <a href="http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/Ipilimumab.html">this website time to first exacerbation (adjusted HR 1.35) and increased risk of exacerbations (adjusted RR 1.15). However, exacerbation history was not associated with risk of moderate-severe exacerbations; adjusted RR 1.14; p?=?0.181 ( Table 4). GOLD stage was significantly associated with time to first exacerbation (p?=?0.029) and risk of moderate-severe exacerbations (p?=?0.008), but not risk of any exacerbation (p?=?0.128) ( Table 4). This is the first large, multinational study assessing the predictive value of the CAT for COPD exacerbations in COPD outpatients who are at risk of exacerbations.

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