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  • For example, the actinomycete-specific PLFA molecules 10Me-16:0, 10Me-17:0 and 10Me-18:0 were not found in fresh litter. They first appeared in month 2 and started to rapidly increase after month 4 (Fig. 3). The highest ratio of PLFAact/PLFAbact was found in the second year of decomposition showing the higher abundance of these potential bacterial lignocellulose degraders in the late stages of litter decomposition. Despite the fact that Quercus spp. litter exhibits a relatively high amount of lignin and high C/N ratio compared selleck screening library with other litter types (Osono & Takeda, 2001; Osono, 2007), its decomposition proceeded rapidly. Approximately one half of its original mass was lost within the first year of decomposition and another 27% in the second year. Surprisingly, significant mass loss was achieved during the first 4 months of the experiment despite the fact that mean temperature at the soil this website surface was ?0.4?��C (maximum 4.6?��C) and soil was covered by snow for 6 weeks during this time with soil surface temperatures oscillating around 1?��C. This mass loss is likely due to a combination of decomposition and leaching of soluble compounds. This finding corroborates the observation of Wittmann et al. (2004), who demonstrated that significant mineralization is likely to occur during winter period in deeper soil. Our results now show the same for litter that is even more exposed to low temperatures than soil (in 5-cm soil at the study site, temperature never decreases below 4?��C during winter). The detailed analysis of plant cell wall polysaccharides showed that the amount of remaining hemicelluloses after decomposition was greater than that of cellulose. Dinaciclib This is an interesting finding because cellulose decomposition has often been regarded as slow due to the presence of crystalline regions (Baldrian & Val��?kov��, 2008). The relatively slower decomposition of hemicellulose was proposed due to its structure, requiring a complex set of enzymes for complete decomposition and the fact that part of the hemicellulose is covalently bound to lignin, which can reduce its accessibility (Martinez et al., 2005; Baldrian, 2008). The study of (Karroum et al., 2005) showed that fast cellulose disappearance continues in deeper soil horizons. In Fagus sylvatica forest soil, cellulose content decreased from 11% of total sugars in the OL horizon to 2.8% in OF and <1% in the OH and deeper horizons, the rest being derived from hemicelluloses. Our results show that the content of plant-derived monosaccharides glucose (from cellulose) and xylose decreased rapidly, while the relative content of monosaccharides reported from fungal biomass �C mannose and the fraction of glucose, derived from noncellulose polysaccharides (Bartnicki-Garcia, 1968) �C relatively increased. Similar shifts of the ratio were reported previously from Pinus and Betula litter (Sanger et al., 1998; Tian et al., 2000). The fact that we found only 2.</div>

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