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div> It was once considered rare in the US adult population, but more recent epidemiologic data show that the prevalence of CD may be approximately 1%.[2, 3] Diagnosis of CD can be delayed by low suspicion in patients with a normal or high body mass index (BMI) on initial presentation. However, it is now well established www.selleckchem.com that many CD patients have a high or normal BMI at diagnosis.[4-7] Body mass index above the normal range is associated with multiple comorbidities including type II diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and several forms of cancer.[8-10] Given the changes in diet and in the small intestinal absorptive function following the treatment of CD, significant changes in BMI may be expected.[11, 12] As a growing proportion of individuals diagnosed with CD are not underweight, the risk of unintentional and adverse weight gain may have increased. Data on changes in BMI after diagnosis of CD are limited due to small patient numbers and to divergent results of different studies. A prior study in the United Kingdom showed that patients with CD tend to gain weight after adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD; 81% of the 188 patients gained weight). However, the sample size was small and the study was limited to adherent patients, as determined by serology testing alone. A second Depsipeptide mouse study from Sweden did not look at changes in BMI after diagnosis, but rather reported that being underweight significantly increased the risk of being diagnosed with CD. The most recent report from New York of 369 patients indicated normalisation of BMI in most patients who adopted a GFD, whether patients were underweight or overweight at diagnosis. Given the limitations of the prior studies, we performed this study to analyse changes in BMI in individuals after diagnosis of CD with particular attention to the potential effects of BML-190 GFD adherence on weight change. In addition, and for comparison with the regional population, the BMI distributions at diagnosis and after treatment were compared to regional population data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The Celiac Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center maintains a secure database (Microsoft Access, Redmond, WA) of all patients with known or suspected CD, including demographic information, age and symptoms at diagnosis. Electronic records of 1018 adults with biopsy confirmed CD were reviewed retrospectively. Other inclusion criteria included: age of 18 and above, GFD adherence score by a specialised CD dietitian, and available BMI measurements on at least two separate hospital visits. BMI (body weight in kg/height in m2) was recorded, and classified per the World Health Organization criteria as underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5�C24.9), overweight (25�C29.9), or obese (��30).