2x, 533.4x, 533.6x, 534.0, 534.00, 534.01, 534.2x, 534.4x and 534.6x. Microsoft SQL Server 2005 was used for data management and computing. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software (Version 18.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Demographic data were expressed as frequency (percentage) or as mean?��?standard deviation. Parametric continuous data between the case and control groups were compared by Student's t-test while categorical data were compared by Chi-square test and Yates�� correction or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Survival analysis was assessed using the Kaplan�CMeier analysis, with significance based on log-rank test. Survival time was calculated from the date of enrollment to the date of hospitalisation for ulcer bleeding. Resminostat
Multiple regression analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. A two-sided P?<?0.05 was considered statistical significant. The demographic data of the COPD and control groups were shown in Table?1. Of the 62?876 cases included, 32?682 were in the COPD group and 30?194 were in the control group. Concurrent use of ulcerogenic medication like ASA, NSAIDs, clopidogrel, ticlopidine and warfarin, except for steroids, was not significantly different between the two groups (P?>?0.05). Compared to the control group, the COPD group had higher proportion of comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, heart failure and chronic renal disease. The COPD group also had more prevalent history of peptic ulcer disease. During OTX015
the 8-year follow-up period, 1445 (2.3%) of 62?876 cases experienced ulcer bleeding, with 944 (65.3%) cases in the COPD group and 501 (34.7%) in the control group. By survival-free period from peptic ulcer bleeding events using Kaplan�CMeier analysis, COPD patients had a significant higher rate of peptic ulcer bleeding than the control group (P?<?0.001, by log-rank test) (Figure?1) Compared to non-ulcer bleeding <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/R788
(Fostamatinib-disodium).html">R788 nmr group, patients who developed ulcer bleeding tended to be older, male, and with other comorbidities (i.e. hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, heart failure, chronic renal disease and COPD), history of peptic ulcer disease, and concurrent use of ulcerogenic medication (e.g. ASA, NSAIDs, steroids, non-ASA anti-platelet agents), except for warfarin (Table?2). After adjusting for age, gender, presence of comorbidities, history of peptic ulcer disease, and use of ulcerogenic medication, Cox regression analysis showed that old age, male gender, hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, history of peptic ulcer disease, COPD, and concurrent use of NSAIDs and non-ASA anti-platelet agents were independent risk factors of developing ulcer bleeding in all patients (Table?3).