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The Self-Defense Skill Of Apoptosis Compound Library

0 sequences flanking the SmaI site. Competent fen1�� cells were cotransformed with linearized plasmid

and PCR product with selection on SD-ura, and transformants screened by PCR and sequencing. For an empty vector control, fen1�� was also transformed with untreated pGRB2.0. Approximately 2?��?108 cells from log phase cultures in YPD at 35��C were pelleted, washed in sterile water three times and frozen on dry ice. After thawing, LCBs were extracted and analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Bielawski et?al., 2010) by the Lipidomics Shared Resource of the Medical University of South Carolina (http://www.musc.edu/BCMB/lipidomics). LY2109761 Echinocandin MICs (concentration inhibiting growth ��?80% relative to drug-free control) were determined by broth microdilution in YPD as

described (Vermitsky et?al., 2006). For combination studies, PHS, DHS or myriocin at the indicated concentrations were added to diluted cells 1?h prior to the broth microdilution assay. All assays were repeated at least twice on separate days, and comparable results obtained. We thank J. Broach for the YCp50 library, and M. Pfaller, D. Diekema, M. Castanheira and D. Sanglard for C.?glabrata strains. These studies were supported by National Institutes of Health Grant AI075272. ""1.?Most hypotheses for translocation success are elaborate, hierarchical, and untested combinations of socio-ecological predictors. Empirical support for those tested is vulnerable to spurious single-predictor relationships and does not account for the hierarchy amongst predictors and non-independence amongst individuals or cohorts. Testing

hypotheses as a priori multi-level models promotes stronger inference. 2.?We apply a 25-year (1981�C2005) data base including 89 reintroduction and 102 restocking events that released 682 black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis into 81 reserves to test 24 hypotheses for translocation success, defined as survival to 1?year post-release. We made information-theoretic comparisons of hypotheses represented as hierarchical models incorporating random effects for reserve and release cohort predictors of death. 3.?Mortality rates after restocking were higher than for reintroductions (13��4 cf. 7��9%, respectively) due largely to intraspecific fighting. No predictors strongly influenced reintroduction success, although cohorts consisting entirely of adult males were 8��2% of individuals but contributed 21��9% of deaths, and reserves with lowest carrying capacities (i.e. <0��1?rhino?km?2) had a 16��3% mortality rate. Most models for restocking success were not supported. Only those including age class received substantial support. Age was the only predictor to strongly influence death rates. Predictors previously thought influential, like population density, reserve area and quality, and cohort size, were not supported. 4.</div>
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