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div>A reference date was defined as 2 years before the diagnosis of bladder cancer for case patients and this same reference date was used for each case patient's matched control subject. Information was requested on demographic characteristics, use of tobacco products and alcohol, usual adult dietary habits, occupational history, prior medical conditions, and prior use of medications at or before the reference date. Lifetime exposure was defined as all past exposures that occurred prior to the reference date. All interviews were conducted by the same team of interviewers throughout the entire data collection; and most case patient and control subjects in a given case-control pair were interviewed by the same interviewer. heptaminol For eligible cases, their pathological reports were retrieved through CSP and abstracted by trained CSP personnel for histology, stage and grade. The tumor node metastasis (TNM) system was used for stage classification.16 On the basis of the T-stage, bladder cancer cases were classified as Tis (carcinoma in situ), Ta (noninvasive papillary carcinoma), T1 (tumors that have grown into the connective tissue beneath the bladder lining) and T2-4 (tumors that have grown through the connective tissue into the muscle). Grade was recorded as well (Grade 1), moderately (Grade 2) or poorly (Grades 3 or 4) differentiated. We excluded cases with unknown stage from all analyses. Consistent with Guey et al.,17 tumors were classified into three categories according to stage and grade: low-grade superficial tumors (Ta and grade < 3, N = 725), high-grade superficial tumors (Ta and grade �� 3, T1 and grade �� 2, N = 456) and muscle-invasive SAR245409 chemical structure tumors (T2, T3, T4, N = 258). A total of 147 cases were excluded from our analyses: 14 non-TCC cases (11 cases of adenocarcinoma, one pheochromocytoma, one spindle cell carcinoma and one lymphoma), nine TCC cases with unknown stage, 74 Tis cases, five Ta cases with unknown grade and 45 T1 cases with unknown grade or Grade 1. The associations of bladder cancer with medical histories were measured by odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p-values. Unconditional polytomous logistic regression Palbociclib cell line was used in the analyses of cigarette smoking, with additional adjustment for strata defined by age and sex (age groups of <45, 45�C49, 50�C54, 55�C59 and ��60 years for each sex), racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic white, Hispanic white or African American) and level of education (high school or less, some college, college or above). Analyses of nonsmoking factors were also adjusted for number of cigarettes smoked per day, number of years of smoking, and smoking status in reference year (smoker or nonsmoker). Similar results were obtained when we limited our analyses to non-Hispanic whites only. Therefore, we presented results based on all study subjects with adjustment for race to have a larger sample size and more stable risk estimates.