e. anteriorly displaced Schwalbe's line), and peripheral anterior synechiae (i.e. iris strands that extend and attach to the trabecular Autophagy Compound Library in vivo
meshwork) (Figs?2b, 3b). In addition, ARS patients may present with various systemic abnormalities including facial dysmorphisms (e.g. hypertelorism, prominent forehead, telecanthus), dental anomalies (e.g. hypodontia, microdontia) and a redundant preumbilical skin. Approximately 50% of ARS patients secondarily develop glaucoma.[5, 11, 12] ARS patients tend to develop glaucoma in adolescence or in early adulthood (<30 years). In cases where the patient has a mutation in one of the two known ARS-associated genes, Forkhead Box C1 (FOXC1) or Pituitary Homeobox 2 (PITX2), the incidence of glaucoma increases to 75%. Mutations in these two transcription factor genes account for approximately 40% of ARS cases. Although the gene has yet to be identified, a third chromosomal loci at 13q14 is associated with ARS. The three chromosomal loci (PITX2 at 4q25, FOXC1 at 6p25, and 13q14) were identified by linkage analysis.[14-18] Peters anomaly is also a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous anterior segment dysgenesis disorder (Table?1). Peters anomaly is associated with a range of ocular abnormalities including central corneal opacity, iridocorneal adhesions, corneolenticular adhesions and defects in Descemet's membrane. Although the presence of central corneal opacity is required for a diagnosis of Peters anomaly, the extent of opacification can be greatly varied among patients. As with ARS patients, patients with Peters anomaly are at a 50% increased <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/dorsomorphin-2hcl.html
">Dorsomorphin research buy risk to develop glaucoma. Peters anomaly is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Mutations in PAX6, PITX2 and CYP1B1 have all been associated with Peters Laccase
anomaly.[20-22] Both autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive modes of inheritance have been described in familial cases of Peters anomaly.[6, 20] In addition, many sporadic cases have also been reported. Patients with Peters Plus syndrome have developmental defects of the anterior chamber of the eye, as well as systemic malformations including short stature, cleft lip palate, growth delay and mental delay.[23, 24] Most patients with Peters Plus syndrome have some sort of anterior chamber defect, with 75% of patients presenting with Peters anomaly. Peters Plus syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease. Peters Plus syndrome has been described to be a congenital disorder of glycosylation as mutations in the ��, 3-galactosyltransferase-like (B3GALTL) gene are associated with this disease. Many anterior segment dysgenesis patients have an elevated risk to develop glaucoma. Primal congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a rare autosomal-recessive form of glaucoma present at birth or within the first 2 years after birth (Table?1).