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Adequate microsphere mixing was verified for each injection by the demonstration of a <15% difference between blood flow to the right and left kidneys and/or to the right and left hindlimb musculature. Blood flows were normalized to the MAP measured immediately preceding microsphere <a href="http://www.selleck.cn/products/lee011.html">Ribociclib injection and expressed as VC (ml min?1 (100 g)?1 mmHg?1). All data are presented as mean �� SEM. MAP, HR and ACh responses were compared using ANOVAs with Student�CNewman�CKeuls post hoc tests where appropriate. Blood flow, VC and blood sample variables were compared with paired Student's t tests. z tests were used to determine when reductions in blood flow and VC were different from zero. Significance was accepted at P < 0.05. and critical speed estimation The average was 86 �� 1 ml kg?1 min?1 (respiratory exchange ratio = 1.07 �� 0.03) with a peak speed of 54.4 �� 2.4 m min?1. The times to exhaustion at 90, 100 and 115% of peak speed and the hyperbolic and linear 1/time model fits and estimated critical speeds for a representative rat are shown in Fig. 1. The coefficient of determination (r2, hyperbolic: 0.96 �� 0.03, linear 1/time: 0.96 �� 0.02, P > 0.05), W�� (hyperbolic: 162 �� 67, linear: 139 �� 66 J, P > 0.05) and estimated critical speed (hyperbolic: 44.0 �� 1.8, linear 1/time: 45.6 �� 1.2 m min?1, P > 0.05) were not different between models. The average running speed at which blood flow measurements were performed was 52.5 �� 1.3 m min?1 (15% above critical speed from the 1/time model). Effects of SMTC on MAP, HR and blood sample variables At rest, SMTC increased MAP and reduced HR compared to control. During exercise, IDO inhibitor SMTC increased MAP whereas HR was not different between conditions (Table 1). Exercising arterial blood pH (control: 7.39 �� 0.02, SMTC: 7.40 �� 0.02), (control: 85.2 �� 2.1, SMTC: 88.3 �� 3.3 mmHg), and [lactate] (control: 6.1 �� 0.4, SMTC: 6.7 �� 0.8 mmol l?1) were not different (P > 0.05 for all) selleckchem between conditions. SMTC significantly reduced (control: 21.7 �� 0.8, SMTC: 19.8 �� 0.8 mmHg, P < 0.05). Effects of SMTC on hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow and VC In marked contrast to low-speed running (see below and also Copp et al. 2010b), SMTC reduced total hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow and VC during high-speed running above critical speed (Fig. 2). Specifically, blood flow was reduced in 14, and VC in 22, of the 28 individual muscles or muscle parts of the rat hindlimb (Table 2). Reductions in blood flow and VC were found in some muscles across the spectrum of oxidative capacities and muscle fibre-type compositions. However, the relative reductions in blood flow and VC following SMTC were greater in the highly glycolytic (100% type IIb+d/x fibres, n= 5) compared to the highly oxidative (��35% type IIb+d/x fibres, n= 5, Fig. 3) muscles and muscle portions. Moreover, note in Fig.
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