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div>One hundred and twenty-two (72.6%) patients were infected with HPV, 75 (61%) had multiple HPV infection, and 94 (77%) had high-risk HPV infection. The most frequently identified HPV types were HPV 16 (64%), HPV 6 (39%), HPV 18 (31%), HPV 53 (14.7%), HPV 33 (10.6%), HPV 11 (8.2%), HPV 70 (5.7%), and HPV 61 (4.9%). The HPV types which were most frequently www.selleckchem.com found in combination were HPV 6?+?16 (9.8%), 6?+?16?+?18 (8.2%), 16?+?18 (6.6%), 6?+?18 (4.9%), 16?+?33 (3.3%), 16?+?53 (3.3%). Median HPV16 and 18 viral loads were 6.1?log10?copies/106?cells [IQR 5.0�C7.3] and 6.1?log10?copies/106?cells [IQR 5.7�C6.0], respectively. Male gender (P?=?0.03, OR: 1.2 [1.0�C1.4]) and homo/bisexual transmission routes (P?=?0.044, OR: 1.4 [1.0�C1.9]) were associated with HPV 16 infection. An HPV 16 viral load cut-off ��5.3?log10?copies/106?cells and a CD4+ cell count ��200/?l were independent factors associated with abnormal cytology. In the absence of national consensus guidelines, a strict regular follow-up at shorter intervals is recommended for HIV-infected patients with abnormal cytology, especially low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, an HPV 16 viral load ��5.3?log/106?cells and a CD4+ cell count ��200/?l. J. Med. Virol. 86:419�C425, Chlormezanone 2014. ? 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ""Alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) is used as a marker of early hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the impact of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) on this relationship in patients with HBV infection is not clear. The present study evaluated the relation between HBsAg and AFP levels at the initial visit in 1,610 untreated HBV patients, free of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or severe hepatitis. The cumulative rate of HCC was significantly lower in patients with a low AFP level (��10??g/L; below the upper limit of normal) than in those with a high AFP level (��11??g/L) at the initial visit. In patients with HBsAg levels more than 500?IU/ml, HBsAg levels correlated significantly and negatively with AFP levels, and significantly with platelet count. Multivariate C646 research buy analysis of data of patients with HBsAg more than 500?IU/ml identified HBsAg (<7,000?IU/ml), albumin (<3.9?g/dl), platelet count (<20.0?��?104/mm3), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (��50?IU/L), aspartate aminotransferase (��34?IU/L), HBeAg (positive), and HBV core-related antigen (��3.0?log?U/ml) as determinants of a high AFP. Especially, in patients with HBsAg more than 500?IU/ml and low transaminase levels (below the upper limit of normal), HBsAg was identified as significant determinant of a high AFP. On the other hand, in patients with HBsAg less than 500?IU/ml, multivariate analysis identified albumin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and HBV core-related antigen as determinants of a high AFP. The results indicated that HBsAg level seems to affect, at least in part, the AFP levels, and that it can be used as a surrogate marker of early hepatocarcinogenesis. J.