The settings of the thermal cycler were 22?cycles of 15?s at 98?��C, 30?s at 60?��C, 45?s at 68?��C, and 7?min at 68?��C for ROR��t and 27?cycles of 15?s at 98?��C, 30?s at 55?��C, 45?s at 68?��C for PPIA. The amplified products Quinapyramine
were separated in 1.2% agarose gel and visualized with ethidium bromide staining under UV radiation. The specific amplification of the expected size (mouse ROR��t, 230?bp; PPIA, 134?bp) was observed. Data are expressed as mean?��?S.E.M. Statistical analysis was conducted using Graphpad Prism Version 6 (GraphPad Software Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test, and P values?<?0.05 were considered significant. It has been demonstrated that plasma ET-1 level is elevated in patients with MS, suggesting the possible involvement of ET-1 in the pathogenesis of MS (Haufschild et al., 2001). Very recently, a correlation between ET-1 and MS development associated with a decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been reported (D'haeseleer et al., 2013). In that report, vasoconstriction of intracerebral arterioles by ET-1 released from reactive astrocytes in MS plaques was shown to lead to a reduction of CBF in MS patients. Likewise, administration of bosentan (a nonselective ET-1 antagonist) to patients with MS can restore CBF to a normal level. These findings suggest that ET-1 may be one of the <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Neratinib
(HKI-272).html">Neratinib in vitro therapeutic targets for MS. Considering the immune system, however, there is no report about the contribution of ET-1 to the pathogenesis of MS. Th17 cell-derived IL-17 is known to be a major mediator in EAE and MS (Komiyama et al., 2006?and?Wang et al., 2011). In the present study, we therefore investigated whether ET-1 regulates the function of the IL-17-producing T cell subset. To evaluate whether ET-1/ETR signaling participates in IL-17 production by encephalitogenic antigen-specific see more
effector T cells, LNC from MOG35�C55-immunized mice were subjected to in vitro restimulation in the presence or absence of an ETR antagonist. As shown in Fig.?1A, restimulation of LNC with MOG35�C55 induced IL-17 production, which was significantly inhibited by BQ123 but not BQ788. This finding suggests that ET-1/ETAR signaling can regulate T cell-derived IL-17 production closely related to the pathogenesis of EAE. This notion was supported by flow cytometric analysis of intracellular IL-17 in CD4+ T cells. Consistent with the ELISA results for IL-17, the frequency of CD4+ T cells producing IL-17 in LNC treated with BQ123 was significantly lower than that in control LNC in the case of stimulation with MOG35�C55 (Fig.?1B).