For comparisons of subjects' characteristics between obstructive- and central-dominant groups, Student t-test for normally distributed continuous variables, Mann-Whitney U test for non-normally distributed variables, and chi-square or Fisher's exact test for nominal variables were used. Within each group, 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, followed by a post Panobinostat mw
hoc analysis with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, was used to compare values obtained during the baseline and either LBPP or control periods. Changes (��) from baseline to the LBPP period (i.e., values during LBPP ? values at baseline) were then compared between the obstructive- and central-dominant groups using analysis of covariance to take into account any potential corresponding changes during the control period. Relationships between variables were examined by Pearson correlation coefficient. A 2-sided p value <0.05 was considered significant. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). We recruited 28 men with HF: 18 in the obstructive-dominant group and 10 in the central-dominant group. Characteristics of these subjects are shown in Table 1. The central-dominant group had a significantly greater degree of mitral regurgitation, higher NT-proBNP level, and right ventricular systolic pressure, as well as shorter mitral inflow deceleration time compared with the obstructive-dominant <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Gefitinib.html
">Gefitinib group. However, there were no significant differences in other characteristics between the 2 groups. At the time of the experiments, none of the subjects had physical findings indicative of pulmonary edema. All subjects remained awake during studies, and neither periodic breathing nor Cheyne-Stokes respiration Forskolin
was observed in any of them during this time. In the obstructive-dominant group, all variables remained stable during the control period compared with baseline (Table 2). Similarly, baseline values before the LBPP period did not differ significantly from baseline values before the control period. However, during the LBPP period, LFV decreased and NC increased significantly, and those changes were significantly greater than those during the control period (p < 0.001 for both). In addition, during the LBPP period, Rph increased, Vmin decreased, and PCO2 increased significantly compared with baseline, and these changes were significantly greater than those during the control period (p = 0.002, p = 0.003, and p = 0.046, respectively). In the central-dominant group, all variables also remained stable during the control period, and baseline values before the LBPP period did not differ significantly from baseline values before the control period (Table 2). During the LBPP period, LFV decreased and NC increased significantly, and those changes were significantly greater than those during the control period (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively).