These newly described phenomena limit exposure to noxious luminal content. Copyright ? 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ""The strong associations between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and dietary habits such as alcohol consumption (A), betel quid chewing (B) and cigarette smoking (C) and its predominance in men have been well documented; however, systemic analysis of OSCC is limited. Our study applied high-throughput screening learn more
methods to identify causative epigenetic targets in a cohort of men with ABC-associated OSCC. We identified BEX1 and LDOC1 as two epigenetically silenced X-linked tumour suppressors and demonstrated a functional link between the transcription of BEX1 and LDOC1 and promoter hypermethylation. Methylation of the BEX1 and LDOC1 promoters was associated significantly (p?<?0.0001) with OSCC and were detected in 75% (42/56) and 89% (50/56) of the samples, respectively. We observed concordant increases in the methylation of both genes in 71% (40/56) of the tumours, and potent in vitro and in vivo growth inhibitory effects in OSCC cells ectopically expressing BEX1 and/or LDOC1. Restored expression of BEX1 and LDOC1 suppressed the nuclear factor-��B (NF-��B) signalling pathway, which is the most frequently hyperactivated <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Adriamycin.html
">Doxorubicin ic50 signalling pathway in OSCC. This suppression might result from decreased p50 and p65 expression. These findings suggest that silencing of BEX1 and LDOC1 by promoter hypermethylation might represent a critical event in the molecular pathogenesis of OSCC BML-190
and account for the oncogenic effects of ABC exposure and the male predominance of OSCC occurrence. Microarray data are available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/
) Copyright ? 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ""Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common life-threatening inherited diseases, and the PKD1 gene is responsible for most cases of this disease. Previous efforts to establish a mouse model that recapitulates the phenotypic characteristics of ADPKD, which have used conventional or conditional knockout of the mouse orthologue Pkd1, have been unsuccessful or unreliable. In a previous study, we described the generation of a novel Pkd1 hypomorphic allele, in which Pkd1 expression was significantly reduced but not totally blocked. These Pkd1 homozygous mutant mice rapidly developed renal cystic disease, supporting the hypothesis that ��haploinsufficiency�� explains development of the ADPKD phenotype. In the present study, we further investigated the Pkd1 haploinsufficiency effect by generating Pkd1 knockdown transgenic mice with co-cistronic expression of two miRNA hairpins specific to Pkd1 transcript and an Emerald GFP reporter driven by a human ubiquitin B promoter.