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div>This method is particularly valuable in the case of producing 2D materials that do not exist in 3D forms, for instance, silicene. Based on the intensive investigations of epitaxial graphene on TM in recent years, it is known that the quality of graphene is affected by many factors, including the interaction between the 2D material overlayer and the substrate, the lattice mismatch, the nucleation density at the early stage of growth. It is found that these factors also apply to many other epitaxial 2D crystals on TM. The knowledge from the reviewed systems will shine light on the design and synthesis of new 2D crystals with novel properties. ""Indium selenides have attracted learn more extensive attention in high-efficiency thermoelectrics for waste heat energy conversion due to their extraordinary and tunable electrical and thermal properties. This Review aims to provide a thorough summary of the structural Ixazomib concentration characteristics (e.g. crystal structures, phase transformations, and structural vacancies) and synthetic methods (e.g. bulk materials, thin films, and nanostructures) of various indium selenides, and then summarize the recent progress on exploring indium selenides as high-efficiency thermoelectric materials. By highlighting challenges and opportunities in the end, this Review intends to shine some light on the possible approaches for thermoelectric performance enhancement of indium selenides, which should open up an opportunity for applying indium selenides in the next-generation thermoelectric devices. ""A technique to study nanowire growth processes on locally heated microcantilevers in situ in a transmission electron microscope has been developed. The in situ observations allow the characterization of the nucleation process of silicon wires, as well as the measurement of growth rates of individual nanowires and the ability to observe the formation of nanowire bridges between separate cantilevers to form a complete nanowire device. How well the nanowires can be nucleated controllably on typical cantilever sidewalls is examined, and the measurements of nanowire growth rates are used to calibrate the cantilever-heater parameters used in Thalidomide finite-element models of cantilever heating profiles, useful for optimization of the design of devices requiring local growth. ""In this study, the scalable and one-step fabrication of single atomic-layer transistors is demonstrated by the selective fluorination of graphene using a low-damage CF4 plasma treatment, where the generated F-radicals preferentially fluorinated the graphene at low temperature (<200 ��C) while defect formation was suppressed by screening out the effect of ion damage.</div>