Additionally, data from the present study were combined with that of UK series I to produce a pool of data from the UK. Pooled analyses were then performed with a pool of comparable studies from the USA [12,14�C16,21]. Where possible, data Olaparib supplier
were used from all of these papers, but where directly comparable information was not available, then pooled analysis was performed using only the studies where this was possible. Again, Chi-squared tests were performed to establish significance. A Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test was applied to establish the strength of correlation between location and length of medial and lateral condylar fractures. The series comprised 174 fractures in 167 Thoroughbred racehorses. One horse suffered a biaxial fracture, 4 horses had bilateral fractures, and 2 horses fractured in subsequent years, one in the same leg. Thirty-five (20.1%) fractures selleck chemical
occurred in females, 38 (21.8%) in entire males, and 101 in geldings (58.1%). The age distribution of affected horses is shown in Figure?2. The present study included a total of 113 (64.9%) 2- and 3-year-olds, which is significantly different (P<0.001) from the 90.3% in UK series I, but similar to 30 of 56 (53.6%) in the one comparable USA series . Twenty-two of 174 (12.6%) fractures occurred in horses racing under jump-racing rules at the time of fracture; the remainder were either unraced or racing in the turf flat season or in all-weather flat races. Twenty-two of 125 (17.6%) fractures in horses aged 3?years and older occurred in horses training or racing under jump-racing rules at the time of fracture. Fractures occurred all year round, but exhibited evidence of apparent seasonality (Fig?3a), although this pattern has not been verified statistically. Of the 174 fractures, the greatest number of fractures occurred in September (32 fractures; 18.4%) and the fewest in December (3 fractures; 1.7%). When horses are grouped by age then the apparent seasonality of fractures is most marked in 2-year-old horses, <a href="http://www.selleck.cn/products/Vorinostat-saha.html
">SAHA HDAC with a corresponding reduction in older animals (Fig?3b). The seasonal differences between age groups are greater when considering fractures of the lateral condyles only. When medial fractures alone are considered, the seasonality is completely absent from the older cohort and less marked in 2-year-old horses; data which are in accord with UK series I. Twelve fractures (6.90%) were unicortical, i.e. involving only the palmar/plantar subchondral bone, and the remainder were bicortical. Unicortical fractures were of varying lengths, but none extended beyond the metaphysis. They were all parasagittal and arose, without exception, immediately adjacent to the sagittal ridge, i.e. in the region of the condylar groove. Six unicortical fractures (50.0%) were linear, sharply marginated, and therefore appeared acute.