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div>It should be noted that hyperbaric oxygen therapy, although used to treat radiation cystitis and cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis, was not used to treat hematuria caused by bladder carcinoma in any of the articles found. Thus, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not further considered in the present review. EACA is a synthetic lysin that competitively inhibits fibrinolysis induced by plasminogen and plasmin. When given orally, the drug is absorbed rapidly and 80% is secreted unchanged in the urine within 24?h. The literature search found only studies reporting small numbers of cases and one experimental study on the use of EACA. The patient populations in these studies were heterogeneous with regard to the cause of hematuria, which included radiogenic cystitis, infections, hemorrhagic disorders and urothelial cancer. There was no empirical data regarding duration and dosage of EACA treatment. The Omipalisib chemical structure use of EACA in hematuria was first described by Vega et?al. in a patient with sickle-cell trait in 1971. Stefanini et?al. described nine patients with hematuria of various causes treated with approximately 150?mg/kg/day EACA for up to 21 consecutive days. The authors reported that hematuria was controlled effectively in all cases without overt clinical reactions. Side-effects of EACA were rare, but serious. Thrombotic complications, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and renal and hepatic Pritelivir failure were all reported.[4, 5] Intravesical formalin treatment causes precipitation of cellular proteins of the bladder, and leads to occlusion and fixation of teleangiectatic tissue and small capillaries.[6, 7] Treatment of inoperable carcinoma of the bladder by formalin instillation was first described in 1969 by Brown. In 24 patients with advanced carcinoma suffering from hematuria and strangury, a 10% formalin solution CAL 101 was instilled into the bladder over 15?min. Relief of hematuria was seen in 22 patients within 1�C5?days, with a mean duration of 4?months, without general complications; the method was thus deemed by Brown to be safe and effective. Subsequently, the method has been widely used with predominantly good success rates. For example, Fair reported on 14 patients treated with 1% formalin instillation; 10 patients were responsive to the first instillation and a further two to the second instillation. Cessation of hematuria was achieved in the remaining two patients by another treatment with 2% formalin. However, severe side-effects were subsequently described in other studies, commonly leading to the discontinuation of formalin instillation in patients with persistent gross hematuria. In a study of 10 patients, Giannakopoulos et?al. reported 40% renal failure, 40% clinically significant reduction of bladder capacity (<100?mL), 30% urinary incontinence, 30% urgency and nocturia, and one case with retroperitoneal fibrosis.