c., indicates that estrus can extend for more than 24 hours (Rasweiler et al., 2009). The breeding pattern observed after placing nonpregnant, adult females with stud males also suggests that C. perspicillata's cycle is long and within the range indicated above. Most females breed within 1 month, although the onset of mating activity diminishes after about the 25th day with males (Table 1; also see Rasweiler and Badwaik, 1996). In most periovulatory females (n = 24 of 31), the recent, regressing CL was in the opposite ovary from the preovulatory or newly RF. This was significantly different (P < 0.001) from a random distribution of such CLs and follicles in the ovaries in successive cycles. In one exceptional case (CW 26), the CL was in the same ovary with a large preovulatory follicle that exhibited premature luteinization. Pentamorphone
Four other bats lacked a recent regressing CL and instead carried a much older CL (two bats) or a corpus albicans (two bats). Two bats carried no CLs. In the initial efforts to breed Carollia in a research setting, many of the females were slow to mate, and the conception rate (even assuming that all of the preovulatory and newly ovulated females examined had become pregnant) would have been a rather poor 64% (de Bonilla and Rasweiler, 1974; Rasweiler and de Bonilla, 1992). New efforts were therefore initiated to see more
breed C. perspicillata using modified husbandry procedures (Rasweiler and Badwaik, 1996). Females can now be bred much more readily��generally, selleck chemical
within one month of placing nonpregnant adults with stud males��and the long-term conception rate for females bred in the colony is slightly more than 94%. Because several husbandry procedures were changed, it is impossible to identify with certainty why the breeding results are now better. Possible factors of importance include the following: (1) The early work was conducted with a colony that may have contained two different species, C. perspicillata and Carollia brevicauda (de Bonilla and Rasweiler, 1974). This raises the possibility that reproductive isolating mechanisms may have contributed to the suboptimal breeding results. This study involved only C. perspicillata. (2) In the early studies, efforts were made to breed wild-caught animals relatively soon (3�C8 months) after capture. Some of these may not have been mature or adequately adapted to captivity when initially placed together to breed. In this study, all of the animals had been born and raised in captivity, although much-improved captive breeding results have also been achieved with wild-caught animals. (3) In the early studies, two or three males were placed with each group of females for breeding purposes. Discord between these males, housed together in a relatively small cage environment, may have interfered with breeding performance. It is now known that C. perspicillata organizes into harem groups that usually contain one mature male and from 2�C10 females (Fleming, 1988).