The Snellen letter chart was used to assess visual acuity, allowing for maximal correction. A standard resting 1-minute 12-lead see more
electrocardiogram was performed during the technical evaluation session and interpreted by a cardiologist; the reading protocol included standard criteria for the diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Motor coordination was evaluated with tests of rapid alternating movements of the upper limbs (finger�Cnose test, finger-tapping test). Variables are reported as means��standard deviations for normally distributed parameters and percentages for categorical variables. Means were compared using age- and sex-adjusted analyses of variance, and percentages with age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression models. Participants were classified into quartiles according to TMT (B-A) time defined as follows: 0 to 50 seconds, first quartile; 51 to 78 seconds, www.selleckchem.com
second quartile; 79 to 115 seconds, third quartile; 116 to 241 seconds, fourth quartile. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between TMT performance and the risk of developing impaired mobility (SPPB<10) after adjusting for age, sex, and multiple potential confounders. Recent literature suggests that, when a dichotomous outcome occurs in more than 10% of the participants, RRs and not odds ratios should be estimated. For this reason, the analysis predicting the development of impaired mobility was repeated using the modified Poisson approach proposed previously, which directly provides RRs.17,18 Linear regression models were used to examine the association between TMT performance and change in SPPB score during the 6-year follow-up after adjusting for confounders including baseline SPPB scores. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship between TMT performance and mortality. Survival curves were statistically compared using log-rank tests. Proportional hazards assumptions were verified by examining scaled Schoenfeld and Martingale residual plots. Fully adjusted models were reduced to parsimonious models that included only variables that were significant predictors of the outcome. All analyses were performed using the SAS statistical package, version 8.2 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) with a significance level set at P<.05. At baseline, the mean age of the study sample <a href="http://www.selleck.cn/products/gsk-j4-hcl.html
">GSKJ4 was 72.5��5.3, with 6.4��3.5 years of education; 49.6% were female. The average times to complete the TMT-A and B were 70.2��29.6 and 157.7��62.0 seconds, respectively. The average SPPB score was 11.0��1.7. After adjustment for age, in participants with a baseline SPPB score of 10 or greater, those in the fourth quartile of TMT (B-A) time at baseline (poor TMT performance) were significantly more likely to have an SPPB score less than 10 at 6-year follow-up than those in the first quartile (RR=2.4, 95% CI=1.4�C3.9, P=.001).