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A Few Chloramben Lies Unwrapped

Twenty-six of 37 nestlings that were originally brood Chloramben mates, but were reared in different nests, were assigned to their correct brood of origin (common origin), which is significantly more often than expected by chance (standard DFA: 70.3% correct assignment versus 9.1%; binomial test, p < 0.001, n = 37 nestlings from 11 rearing nests). In the cross-validated DFA, four of the 37 nestlings were assigned to their correct brood of origin, which did not differ significantly from chance (cross-validated DFA: 10.8% correct assignment versus 9.1%; binomial test, p = 0.58, n = 37 nestlings from 11 rearing nests). The variance component analysis revealed that brood of origin did not contribute significantly to the variation in any of the call variables (Table 3). Twenty-eight of 38 nestlings that were reared together Hydroxychloroquine ic50 but originated in different nests, were assigned to their correct brood of rearing (common environment), which is significantly more often than expected by chance (standard DFA: 73.7% correct assignment versus 10.0%; binomial test, p < 0.001, n = 38 nestlings from 10 rearing nests). In the cross-validated DFA, eight of the 38 nestlings were assigned to their correct brood of rearing, an assignment rate that was marginally non-significant (cross-validated DFA: 21.1% correct assignment versus 10.0%; binomial test, p = 0.051, n = 38 nestlings from 10 rearing nests). The variance component analysis showed that brood of rearing contributed significantly to the variation in call duration and variance of entropy (the variability in the noisiness of each call) (Table 3). Our results for control broods confirm evidence from a previous study for brood signatures in tree swallows (Leonard et al. 1997a) and suggest that a number of call features could contribute to the brood signature. We found no evidence Bioactive Compound Library cost for genetic/maternal effects in our call analyses on cross-fostered broods and the cross-validated DFA did not assign nestlings to their correct nest of origin. We found evidence for a weak effect of the rearing environment, with two call features significantly affected by rearing environment, however, correct assignment rate in the cross-validated DFA was not significant (albeit marginally so). Thus brood signatures in this species show neither genetic/maternal nor environmental effects alone, but instead appear to develop through an interaction between a nestling's genetic/maternal origin and its environment. Here we discuss each of these points in turn. We found that tree swallow broods can be discriminated from one another by their calls, with six of the nine call features we measured differing significantly amongst control broods (Table 3).
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