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Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. Data Supplement S1. Discussion guide. ""The lumbar puncture (LP) is a procedural competency deemed necessary by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Emergency Medicine and Pediatric Residency Review Committees. The emergency department (ED) is a primary site for residents to be evaluated performing neonatal LPs. Current evaluation methods lack validity evidence as assessment tools. This was a pilot study to develop an objective structured find more assessment of technical skills for neonatal LP (OSATS-LP) and to document validity evidence for the instrument in regard to five sources of test validity: content, response process, relation to other variables, inter-rater reliability, and consequences of testing. Pediatric residents were videotaped in the fall of 2011 for comparison of faculty evaluation of resident performance during a neonatal LP using a video-delayed format. Residents completed a demographic experience survey evaluating relations to other variables. Content and response process validity was obtained through expert panel meetings and resulted in the following seven domains of performance for the OSATS-LP: preparation, positioning, analgesia, needle insertion, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection, management of laboratory studies, and sterility. t-tests assessed significance between level of training, previous intensive care unit experience, and residents' self-assessed confidence in comparison with their total performance score. Tanespimycin research buy The inter-rater agreement of the OSATS-LP was obtained using the Fleiss' kappa for each domain. Sixteen pediatric residents completed the simulation with six raters evaluating each resident (96 ratings). The domains of sterility and CSF collection had moderate statistical reliability (��?=?0.41 and Resiquimod 0.51, respectively). The domains of preparation, analgesia, and management of laboratories had substantial reliability (��?=?0.60, 0.62, and 0.62, respectively). The domains of positioning and needle insertion were less reliable (��?=?0.16 and 0.16, respectively). Individuals who had completed one or more rotations in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) had a higher total score (12.5 vs. 16.9; p?<?0.01). The residents' own perception of ability to perform an LP unsupervised did not result in a higher total score. The OSATS-LP has reasonable evidence in four of the five sources for test validity. This study serves as a launching point for using this tool in clinical environments such as the ED and, therefore, has the potential to provide real-time formative and summative feedback to improve resident skills and ultimately lead to improvements in patient care.</div>
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