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div>Kim-1 outperformed SCr, BUN and urinary NAG. Ozer and colleagues studied the utility of several markers during recovery from injury. Serum cystatin C was more sensitive and specific than SCr or BUN in monitoring generalized renal function. Overall, these studies suggest simple blood and urinary measurements that could improve the sensitivity for identifying injury, localize the part of the nephron affected, monitor disease resolution versus progression LY2157299 manufacturer and monitor therapeutic interventions. For transplantation, these studies must be validated in the setting of confounding variables, such as intrinsic renal disease and other causes of renal dysfunction including obstruction, vascular compromise, ischemia-reperfusion injury, rejection, urinary tract infection and systemic infection. Confirmation in humans will be of the utmost importance. These studies provide a paradigm for discovery BAY 73-4506 cell line and validation of new markers for organ dysfunction, and may teach us new ways to monitor transplanted tissues. Lastly, these studies will undoubtedly make an impact in the way for which they were originally intended: the clinical evaluation of the safety of new pharmaceuticals. ""Anti-lymphocyte-depleting antibodies have increasingly been utilized in the clinic as induction therapy aiming to improve transplantation outcomes by reducing the need for long-term immunosuppression. However, maintenance immunosuppression is still required as lymphocyte reconstitution through homeostatic proliferation, partially driven by IL-7, continues to replenish tolerance-refractory immune cells capable of rejection. In murine models of MHC mismatched skin grafting, we investigated whether it is feasible to control the lymphocyte reconstitution Dorsomorphin process to delay rejection and favor tolerance processes. We found that a short course of anti-IL-7 receptor blocking antibody following T cell depletion, combined with the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor Rapamycin, could significantly delay graft rejection in one mouse strain, and achieve transplantation tolerance in another. The combination treatment was found to delay T cell reconstitution and, in the short term, enriched for Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), at the expense of effector cells. Extended graft survival and tolerance were dependent on TGF-?, indicating a role for induced Tregs. These findings point to the feasibility of building on lympholytic induction by guiding early lymphocyte reconstitution to favor endogenous regulatory mechanisms. ""This study compares the perceptions of transplant surgery program directors (PDs) and recent fellowship graduates (RFs) regarding the adequacy of training and relevancy to practice of specific curricular content items in fellowship training. Surveys were sent to all American Society of Transplant Surgery approved fellowship PDs and all RFs in practice <5 years.</div>